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Design and forming of plastic mold

Designing plastic parts is a complex task involving many factors that can satisfy a range of application requirements. "How is this part used?" "How is it suitable for other parts in assembly?" "What load will it bear during use?" In addition to functional and structural issues, processing issues also play an important role in the design of injection molded plastic parts. How molten plastic enters in the cavity, fills and cools to form a part, this largely determines the shape that the part must take. Observing some basic rules for the design of injection molded parts will make the parts not only easy to manufacture and assemble, but also generally stronger in use. Dividing parts into basic groups will help you build parts in a logical way while minimizing molding problems. When developing parts, always keep in mind how the parts are molded and how to minimize stress.

Plastic injection molding is the preferred process for manufacturing plastic parts. Injection molding can be used to manufacture many things, such as electronic housings, containers, bottle caps, car interiors, combs, and most other plastic products available today. Because the use of multi-cavity injection molds can produce multiple parts per cycle, it is ideal for producing large numbers of plastic parts. Some of the advantages of injection molding are high tolerance accuracy, high repeatability, many material choices, low labor costs, small waste loss, and almost no need for finishing parts after molding. Some disadvantages of this process are expensive upfront tool investment and process limitations.

Through injection molding, granular plastic is fed by gravity from a hopper into a heated barrel. When the particles are slowly pushed forward by the screw plunger, the plastic is forced into a heating chamber called a barrel, where it melts. As the plunger advances, the molten plastic is forced through a nozzle that is in close contact with the mold runner bushing, allowing it to enter the mold cavity through the gate and runner system. The mold is kept at the set temperature, so the plastic can solidify almost after the mold is filled.

The sequence of events in the injection molding process of plastic parts is called the injection molding cycle. When the mold is closed, the cycle begins, and then the polymer is injected into the mold cavity. After the cavity is filled, pressure will be maintained to compensate for material shrinkage. In the next step, the screw rotates, feeding the next shot into the front screw. This will cause the screw to retract when it is ready for the next injection. Once the part has cooled sufficiently, the mold will open and then eject the part.


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